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Barry Goldwater and William (Bill) Edward Miller ran together and lost the presidential election of 1964, representing the Republican ticket. Goldwater, an Arizona Senator at the time, picked Miller as his vice presidential candidate and the two ran on a campaign of staunch conservatism and anti-communism. They lost to President Lyndon B. Johnson and Vice President Hubert Humphrey after carrying only Goldwater's home state and five states of the Deep South.
Miller served in the Army during WWII and after returning home, began his political career in earnest. He was elected to the US House of Representatives, representing New York from 1951 to 1965. Even with his lengthy time in Congress, he was not well know when he entered the campaign with Goldwater. Goldwater's main hindrance was that he was seen as an extremist, even by his fellow Republicans. This came across significantly in a May 1964 speech when he stated that nuclear weapons should be used more as conventional weaponry and was later heard to make the offhand comment, "Let's lob one into the men's room at the Kremlin."